Working Principle of Capacitors

Imagine in front of you there are two iron plates, two long cables, and a 12 volt car battery that says Yuasa which has just been charged.

Then you arrange the two iron plates facing each other and parallel to a distance of only 1 cm. Using the two cables provided, you connect one iron to the positive pole of the battery, while the other iron you connect to the negative pole.

Then while wearing the Ant Man costume, you press the button on the base of your right index finger until you shrink, keep getting smaller, while feeling a little nausea in your stomach, until you finally reach subatomic size.

And how surprised you will be when you can see various miracles that exist in other realms.

As you approached the row of iron plate atoms earlier, your eyes widened because you saw the positive iron plate atoms being left behind by the electrons.

With curiosity, you approach the atoms on the iron plate next to them that are connected to the negative pole of the battery. And you are even more curious, because you see that the iron atoms are actually being approached by electrons, more and more, and the more they accumulate.

A few moments later you are shocked. You see a changing phenomenon.

The flow of electrons stopped completely. But you feel the power of new energy stored in the atoms of the two parallel iron plates. Sort of, a new battery.

That’s a glimpse of what a capacitor is when viewed from the Ant Man’s point of view. And of course I’m just kidding about the existence of one of those Marvel superheroes. But for the illustration of the electrical phenomenon above, I’m not kidding, that’s what happens to the capacitor.

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In fact, a capacitor is just an electrical component consisting idnplay pagcor of two electrical conductors that sandwich an insulator. Therefore the capacitor symbol is shaped like that, which is like two parallel wires giving each other a distance. Blank between the two.

When the capacitor is connected to a DC voltage source, the electric current flowing from the battery will make the capacitor store more charge. At a certain point in time, the capacitor will reach its maximum capacity which is equivalent to the voltage of the battery.

If Q is the capacitor charge, and V is the electric voltage, then the relationship between the two – which is fine – can be said to be comparable like the equation below:

Q \ approx V

Then if we input a standard constant called capacitance (C), then the above equation becomes:

Q = CV

If traced deeper, the capacitance value of a capacitor depends on 3 things: the permissivity value of the dielectric medium used, the surface area of ​​the metal plate, and the distance between the two.

The following is the relationship between these three factors and the capacitance value:

C = \ dfrac {\ varepsilon A} {d}

Then, is it true that the story above states that the capacitor after it is connected to the battery will become a new ‘battery’?

Of course not.

There are some basic differences between a battery and a capacitor. The following include: